Recycling: the why, how and where in Bahrain
Bahrain, which means “two seas,” is an archipelago of 33 small natural islands and enjoys a strategic location in the Arabian Gulf midway between the Qatar peninsula and Saudi Arabia in the Persian ( Arabian) Gulf
Bahrain is divided into five governates : Capital, Central, Muharraq, Northern and Southern.
The islands for the most part are level expanses of sand and rock. A causeway connects Bahrain to Saudi Arabia.(Nov 1986)
Two seas refers to the presence of fresh water springs beneath saltwater oceans; in some places, one could actually dive beneath the layer of saltwater and get to the fresh water underneath.
Submarine waterspring Muharraq (up)
by Anna Maria Kotarba-Morley, Mike Morley & Robert Carter (right)
Ain Adhari in the 1950's a favorite place for locals to go to and refresh themselves in the hot weather.
Ain Adhari 2016
No more natural water spring, the water level is so low that it all dried up mainly due to demand for groundwater by the increasing population.
Population 1950: 109. 650 of which 18. 471 (18%) were foreigner
August 2020 Estimated Population :1,701,575
and increase of 3.68 % since 2019
Fertility rate 2.0%
Total life expectancy (both sexes) at birth for Bahrain is 77.73 years.
This is above the average life expectancy at birth of the global population which is about 71 years (according to Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations).
This sweet water not only made it habitable, The Dilmun civilization flourished here for millennia , with trade routes linking Mesopatania with India- it aided the formation of particularly lustrous pearls, Bahrain's main source of income in the days before oil.
Ain Adhari 1970 -1980
Though majority of the population is ethnically Arab, a sizable number of people from South Asia live in the country.
In 2013, approximately 350,000 Indian nationals lived in Bahrain, making them the single largest expatriate community in the country
While Arabic is Bahrain’s official language, English is widely spoken, especially for business purposes
BarBar Temple up (tripadvisor) and right picture
Below Tylos Burial Mounds
Burial Mounds: Bahrain's 172,000 burial mounds belong to the Bronze Age from about 3,000 BC when Bahrain was the site of the world's largest prehistoric cemetery. Excavations in 1981 exposed the oldest tombs yet discovered on the island. The burial mounds range from single-chamber tombs to double-chamber and multiple chamber graves.
In 1487 the Omanis conquered Bahrain and erected a fort whose ruins still exist and Portuguese also entered the scene until 1602 when Bahrainis themselves drove them from their island and then invited Persians in for protection.
In 1783, The Al-Khalifa family arrived from Kuwait and drove out the Persians. The Al Khalifas rule the land benevolently to this day.
Subsequently, as the first Gulf state to move away from dependence on oil, we have become the region’s most diversified economy.
In particular, our country has become the region’s leading financial centre since the 1980s.
Sheikh Isa Bin Salman Al-Khalifa, who became emir in 1961, was determined to diversify his country's economy, and he set about establishing Bahrain as a major financial center.
Since then manufacturing, logistics, communications, professional services and real estate have also become important sectors. Throughout this period, we have taken great care to build up the skills and talents of the Bahraini people
The country provides its people with free medical care, housing, education, and old-age pensions.
The emir, Sheikh Isa Bin Salman al-Khalifa, died in 1999 after four decades of rule.
By the mid-19th century, the country was the Gulf’s pre-eminent trade hub, emerging as a modern state. Merchants from countries across the Gulf and beyond established themselves on the islands.
Qal'at al-Bahrain - Portuguese fort
When Islam made its first forays into Arabia, Bahrain was one of the first parts to accept the new religion. In 640 AD, the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) wrote the ruler of Bahrain inviting him to adopt Islam.
A peaceful adoption of Islam occurred and for two centuries Christians and Muslims lived together in Bahrain. Bahrain still has a small indigenous Christian community.
St. Christopher Cathedral Manama
Bahrain became a British protectorate in 1820. It did not gain full independence until Aug. 14, 1971.
Although oil was discovered in Bahrain in the 1930s, it was relatively little compared to other Gulf states, and the wells are expected to be the first in the region to dry up.
Red, the traditional color for flags of Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam
Until 2002 the flag had eight white points, but this was reduced to five to avoid confusion with the Qatari flag
He was succeeded by his son, Sheik Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa, who took the title of king making Bahrain a Monarchy, he also began a sweeping democratization of the country: censorship has been relaxed and draconian laws repealed, exiles have been repatriated, and the stateless Bidoons have been granted citizenship.
In a February 2001 referendum, which permitted women to vote for the first time, Bahraini's overwhelmingly supported the transformation of the traditional monarchy into a constitutional one.
In October 2002, Bahrain had its first parliamentary election since 1973.
In 2006, the U.S. and Bahrain signed a free-trade agreement